BER Structural Biology and Imaging Resources
Synchrotron, Neutron, and Cryo-EM
U.S. Department of Energy | Office of Science | Office of Biological and Environmental Research

Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Cryo-Electron Tomography

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) helps reveal the elusive mechanism of transmembrane proton transport. Cryo-EM determined the structure of a yeast vacuole Vo proton channel pump complex at 2.7 Å resolution (15 polypeptides shown in different colors), specific protein-lipid interactions, and the role of water in the dynamic process. [PDB ID: 6MOR. Roh, S. H., et al. 2020. “Cryo-EM and MD infer water-mediated proton transport and autoinhibition mechanisms of Vo complex,” Science Advances 6(41), eabb9605. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb9605.]

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) techniques use electrons to provide images of biological materials frozen in their native state. Materials range from proteins and nucleic acids to very large biological assemblies and complexes, and image resolutions range from nanometer to atomic scales.

Collectively a suite of sample preparation techniques, 200-300 kV electron microscopes, and data analysis tools is available at DOE user facilities to address a range of imaging needs for BER-mission-relevant biological research. Cryo-EM uniquely captures dynamic ensembles of macromolecular structures as they occur in solution. Image analysis can then separate these ensembles into high-resolution snapshots that capture their compositional and conformational variance and their dynamics.

Cryo-ET is an emerging technique that can resolve subcellular structures inside cells and tissues. It can achieve nanometer-scale resolution for the entire sample and atomic-scale resolution for abundant molecular components in situ when post-tomographic data processing is added. Cryo-fluorescence light microscopy (cryo-FLM) and subsequent cryo-ET of frozen, hydrated cells can be used to label specific proteins and study cellular and molecular functions and dynamics in the 3D context of cells and tissues at a higher resolution than any other imaging techniques. Cryo-ET can also be preceded by cryogenic focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (cryo-FIB-SEM), to produce lamellae from vitrified cells that are thin enough for cryo-ET imaging.

Key Features of Cryo-EM/ET Imaging

  • Accommodates sample sizes ranging from tens of kilodaltons of biological molecules to viruses, parasites, bacteria, and eukaryotic cells and tissues.

    One view of the 3D structure of vitrified yeast cells (cell membrane and wall colored yellow) determined by correlated optical and electron-based cryogenic microscopy techniques. Inside the cells are the nucleus (orange), mitochondria (purple), and other subcellular structures.

  • All biological samples are embedded in vitrified ice without any chemical fixative.
  • Structure resolution ranges from nanometers to ångströms.
  • Cryo-EM structures of biochemically purified biomolecules and molecular machines can resolve individual atoms, water, and ions.
  • Cryo-ET structures of cells can resolve organelles and subcellular components at nanometer resolution, and macromolecular structures at near-atomic resolution.
  • Cryo-FLM can detect a fluorescent protein fused with a target of interest and correlate it with its cellular environment using Cryo-ET.
  • Microcrystal electron diffraction (micro-ED), a cryo-EM technique, can determine the atomic structure of small molecules or proteins from nanoscale 3D crystals.

BER Researchers Use Cryo-EM/ET to Study:

  • Viruses, bacteria, fungi, free-living algae, plant tissues, and cells under normal and environmentally stressed conditions
  • Root hairs and mycorrhizae, which play significant roles in plant nutrient exchange
  • Model soil systems with microbe-fungi interactions under different environmental conditions
  • Stream sediments and colloids (including iron colloids, the basis of nutrient transport and bog iron formation)
  • Natural products and metabolite structures

Sample Considerations

  • Accommodates biochemically purified biomolecules with molecular weights larger than ~28 kDa under different chemical conditions.
  • Cell environments in standard growth or culture conditions are preserved until the moment of plunge-freezing, which occurs on a millisecond timescale.
  • Ideal samples are less than 0.4 microns thick, either naturally or thinned by cryo-FIB or ultramicrotomy.
  • Samples thinner than 10 microns can be plunge-frozen, then thinned by cryo-FIB.
  • Tissue samples up to 200 microns thick can be high-pressure frozen, then cryo-sectioned by ultramicrotomy and thinned by cryo-FIB.
  • The standard sample support is a 3mm diameter electron microscope grid. Other types of sample supports may be accommodated.

Instruments at DOE User Facilities

Each instrument has unique characteristics. To determine the user facility and instrument best suited to your science questions, see additional information and contacts at the links below.

  • Laboratory for Biomolecular Structure (LBMS) — Brookhaven National Laboratory. Provides peer-reviewed research access, support, and training for the use of both high-end and screening cryo-EM.
  • Cryo-EM/ET at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) — Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Multiple DOE-funded microscopes are available. EMSL periodically issues calls for user proposals from researchers interested in using cryo-EM and other capabilities (e.g., native mass spectrometry, fluorescence). Proposals for the use of only cryo-EM/ET or micro-ED may undergo an accelerated review and access process.
  • Stanford-SLAC Cryo-EM Center — SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Multiple instruments for cryo-EMcryo-ET, cryo-FIB-SEM, and cryo-FLM are available. Some of these facilities are accessible after a merit-based proposal evaluation by an expert panel. Training is open to global scientific investigators.

Research Highlights

DateTitleTechniqueFacilityScience Topic
02/11/2021A Modular Approach to Designing Protein AssembliesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/19/2021Fusion Enzymes Improve Yield of Functionalized TerpenesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/06/2021Designing a Controllable Self-Assembling BiomaterialSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
02/03/2020Antibodies Elicited by Zika Vaccine CharacterizedX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
09/24/2019Revealing a MERS-CoV VulnerabilityX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/27/2020Potent Antibody Against SARS-CoV-2X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
02/02/2021SARS-CoV-2 Enzyme Structure Reveals Potential InhibitorsX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
05/21/2021Essential Enzyme in Bacterial Protein SynthesisX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/02/2021Complexation of Metals with Bacterial MethanobactinsX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
03/24/2021Deciphering the Mechanism of Enzymatic Methane SynthesisX-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/30/2020Molecular Crystals Hybridized with Hydrogel Polymers Achieve Unprecedented Material Attributes
01/07/2020Multistep Crystallization of Microbial S-Layers
03/23/2020Antibiotics with a Built-in OFF Switch
11/02/2020Mechanistic Insights into Cu(I) Biogenesis of Galactose Oxidase
09/01/2020Tracking Foliar Zinc Absorption in Apple Trees
01/01/2021Soil Amendments and Flooding Cycle Impact Cadmium Bioavailability in Paddy Soil
08/18/2020Visualizing Enzymes in Action
01/22/2020Efficient and Economical Strategy for Functional Metalloprotein Design
03/10/2020Introducing Positive Charges in an Artificial Enzyme Increases CO2 Hydrogenation
12/09/2019Tuning the Catalytic Bias of Hydrogenase Enzymes
03/08/2018Safety Concerns Over Tungsten Accumulation in Bone
07/08/2019Nanoparticle Properties Influence Transport and Distribution in Plants
10/17/20183.7-Billion-Year-Old Rock Structures Formed by Tectonics, Not Life
09/07/2018First X-ray Nanofluorescence Tomography of Single Bacterial Cell
12/10/2018Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry Influences Journey Through Tomato Plant
11/07/2017Characterization of Elusive Yeast Protein Complex Involved in Autophagy
03/24/2020Critical Structural Differences Between Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza
03/24/2020Tunable Molecular Coating Stabilizes "DNA Origami" Structures
05/16/2019Key Drug Target Shown Assembling in Real Time
06/17/2021Surface Features of Prions Reveal Mechanism of Replication
01/10/2018Novel Architecture of a Bacterial Plasma Membrane Transporter
11/16/20173D Protein Structure Aids Search for Vaccine
08/09/2018Activation Mechanism of a Protein Kinase Reveals Role in Cancer Proliferation
10/08/2018Searching for New Ways to Fight Bacterial Resistance
06/21/2019Light Teaches Coenzymes New TricksX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
05/21/2019Structural Basis of Bacterial Spore GerminationX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
05/07/2020Mechanism of Activation of a Plant MetacaspaseX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
04/14/2021Molecular Fragment Screening Identifies Potential SARS-CoV-2 InhibitorsX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/13/2018Structure of a Nuclear Membrane GatekeeperX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
09/23/2019Mechanism of Regulatory Protein's Dual Role as Inhibitor and ActivatorX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
04/02/2013Major Scaffold Component in Nuclear Pore ComplexSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/24/2012Modulation of Plant Hormones by GH3 ProteinsX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/29/2013Common Physical Processes in Different Biomass PretreatmentsSmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographySpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
07/17/2013Lessening X-ray Damage Speeds Protein DiscoveryX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
02/07/2013Lipid Bilayer Composition Regulates Function of Lipid Rafts in Model Cell MembranesSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/09/2012Watching the Evolution of a Protein’s FunctionX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/15/2013Multifunctionality of an Ebola Virus ProteinX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
09/26/2014Understanding Nitrogen Fixation in BacteriaX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/10/2014Self-Assembling Porous Protein Cage Designed for Potential Biotech ApplicationsSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
08/25/2015Modular Construction on a Biomolecular ScaleX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/10/2015Archaeal Enzyme Plays Key Role in Atmospheric Carbon TurnoverX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
09/08/2015Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris DecompositionSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging, X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
12/07/2016Using Soft X-ray Ptychography to Investigate a Bacterium’s Inner CompassX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
11/30/2016Crystal Structure of NOV1 Enzyme Reveals Mechanism of ActionX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
11/15/2016Mapping the Migration of Genetic MaterialSoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
09/30/2020Understanding an Essential Chaperone ComplexCryo-Electron Microscopy, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
07/31/2020Targeting a Critical Molecular Switch in COVID-19Solution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
11/30/2020Fine Tuning Drugs to Fight CancerX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
01/12/2016Cellulose Synthesis ComplexSmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, Solution X-ray ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/14/2016Hollow Pyramid Unlocks Principles of Protein ArchitectureSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
12/20/2016Detailing the Molecular Roots of Alzheimer’s DiseaseX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/15/2016How Your Body Transports Zinc to Protect Your HealthX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
07/20/2017The CRISPR Target-Recognition MechanismX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/03/2018Dynamic Regulation of Histone Chaperone NucleoplasminSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/23/2017Revealing How Bacterial Organelles AssembleX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/26/2017Molecular Basis of Alternative Tyrosine Biosynthesis in PlantsX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
04/12/2017Green Alga Genome Provides Blueprint to Advance Clean Energy, BioproductsSoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
10/06/2016Description of Hydration Water in Green Fluorescent Protein SolutionSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/29/2017Precise Control of Neutron Contrast in Surfactant Micelles Provides Platform for Membrane Structure StudiesSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/22/2016Neutrons Identify Oxygen Activation in LPMO enzymeNeutron Macromolecular Crystallography, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Spallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
05/23/2017Using Neutrons to Resolve Plasma Membrane Organization in Live BacteriaSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
08/03/2017Chemical Strategy for Conversion of CO2 to BiomassX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/19/2020Enhancing Enzyme Catalysis Through Directed EvolutionX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
08/14/2020Phenoxy Radical-Radical Coupling in PlantsX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/22/2017Archaeal Abundance on Human Skin Changes with AgeSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/11/2017Hacking the Bacterial Social NetworkX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/16/2017Engineering Better Plant Cultivars for Iron Uptake by Modifying the Iron Deficiency Response in Arabidopsis thalianaX-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
05/09/2017Probing S-layer Protein Structural Dynamics with SAXSSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
09/08/2017The Origins of Photosynthesis in a Sun-Loving BacteriaX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/14/2017X-ray Footprinting Solves Mystery of Metal-Breathing ProteinAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
12/05/2016Designing Cyclic Oligomers: Greater than the Sum of Their PartsSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
09/09/2017Measuring and Modeling Poplar Root Water Extraction After Drought Using Neutron ImagingNeutron ImagingSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorCell and Tissue Structure
06/30/2017Finding New Clues to a Common Respiratory VirusX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/02/2017Arsenic Accumulation in Benthic Periphytic BiofilmsX-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/01/2016Crystal Clear Imaging Infrared Brings to Light Nanoscale Molecular ArrangementSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
07/10/2017Novel Orange Carotenoid Proteins Shed Light on Evolution of Cyanobacteria PhotoprotectionX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/11/2017Study Pinpoints Most Reactive Areas of Nanoscale ParticlesSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
01/19/2017A Regional Model for Uranium Redox and MobilityX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
04/07/2017Direct Measurement of Protein Dynamics In VivoSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
04/18/2017Could This Enzyme Help Turn Biofuel Waste into Something Useful?X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
07/11/2017Brown Rot Fungi Reveal a New Approach for Biomass Conversion to Fuels and ChemicalsSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/19/2019Dynamics on Cellulose Show Two Important Populations from Neutron Scattering and SimulationsSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
11/15/2017Cyanobacterial Studies Examine Cellular Structure During Nitrogen StarvationSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/13/2017Binding of Alternative Substrates to NitrogenaseX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/17/2018"Zip Code" Mechanism for Hormone Signaling RevealedX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/18/2018Structure of a Flavoenzyme Assembly IntermediateX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
12/14/2017Using Plants to Immobilize and Stabilize Arsenic in the SoilX-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/30/2018Directed Evolution Mimics Allosteric Activation of EnzymesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
08/21/2018Potent BacteriaX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/15/2018Controlled Self-Assembly of a Designed NucleoproteinSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/05/2019Peptide Induced Lateral Segregation of Lipids in a BiomembraneSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
02/25/2019Breakthrough Shines Light on Disease-Fighting ProteinCryo-Electron Microscopy, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/18/2019An Efficient and Economical Strategy for the Design of Functional MetalloproteinsX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/22/2019DNA Gets a Bigger AlphabetX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/05/2019Understanding Cadmium Distribution in Hyperaccumulating Plants for Efficient PhytoremediationX-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
04/05/2019Influence of Chemically Disrupted Photosynthesis on Cyanobacterial Thylakoid DynamicsSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
04/12/2019What Enables the Fastest Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Reductive Carboxylase?X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/03/2019New Approach for Solving Protein Structures from Tiny CrystalsX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
07/10/2019Structuring Sweetness: What Makes Stevia 200 Times Sweeter than Sugar?X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
07/10/2019Structural Characterization of Chitinases from Agave tequilanaSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/19/2019How Essential Membrane Lipids Interact to Regulate Cellular ProcessesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/29/2019Ammonia-Salt Solvent Promotes Cellulosic Biomass Deconstruction Under Ambient Processing ConditionsSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/09/2019Research at the Advanced Photon Source Leads to New Ebola DrugX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/29/2020How Proteins Remodel DNA in Bacteria Under StressSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular Crystallography, Soft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure, Cell and Tissue Structure
08/13/2020Cell Membrane Proteins Imaged in 3DX-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
07/21/2020Role of Solvents in Efficient Biomass DeconstructionSmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
02/14/2020How Dinosaur Blood Vessels Preserve Through the AgesSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
06/23/2020Novel Cell Membrane Model Could Be Key to Uncovering New Protein PropertiesCryo-Electron Microscopy, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, Solution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Spallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure, Cell and Tissue Structure
10/07/2020"Missing Link" in Evolutionary History of the Carbon-Fixing Protein RubiscoSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure