“We were checking spacecraft and their clean rooms for the presence of archaea, as they are suspected to be possible critical contaminants during space exploration,” Moissl-Eichinger said. “Certain methane-producing archaea, the so-called methanogens, could possibly survive on Mars. We did not find many signatures from methanogens, but we found loads of Thaumarchaeota, a very different type of archaea that survives with oxygen.”
This finding led to the discovery that these archaea are present on people’s skin. The infrared beamline was used to rapidly and precisely characterize samples from humans and determine the levels and types of microbes present, based on the chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy. This analysis could then be linked back to the genomic data collected by the Austrian team. The detected archaea are probably involved in nitrogen turnover on skin and are capable of lowering skin pH, supporting the suppression of pathogens. The researchers found that because of changes in skin moisture, these microbes are most abundant in subjects younger than 12 and older than 60.