BER Structural Biology and Imaging Resources
Synchrotron, Neutron, and Cryo-EM
U.S. Department of Energy | Biological and Environmental Research Program

X-Ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy

High-resolution structure, redox states, and bonding descriptions of metals in complex environments

Synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy techniques provide a powerful and synergistic toolkit to explore metal interactions within biological and biogeochemical systems and within the environment. These interactions can be observed on molecular scales to genomics-controlled mesoscales and include local environmental phenomena such as elemental uptake, catalytic behavior, storage, and bioavailability.

The synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy suite encompasses standard and high-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). Structural information (electronic and geometric) can be obtained from X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and EXAFS experiments (collectively called XAS). MicroXAS imaging provides spatially-resolved information on metal distribution and chemical speciation in biological materials on length scales from cells (nanometers) to tissues (centimeters). And enhanced electronic information into the time domain can be addressed using XES.

Synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy techniques can probe how metalloproteins enable catalytic reactions like CO2 reduction and methane formation and how trace elements are involved in metabolism. They can also shed light on molecular transformations occurring in biogeochemical systems and processes by answering questions such as how the redox state and bonding description of a particular element evolve under various conditions and over time.

Instruments can be tuned to a specific element, providing complementary geometric and electronic structure information about the element and its nearest neighbors. The ability to probe one or more element independently under a variety of sample conditions allows detailed characterization of the chemistry in complex multifaceted systems. U.S. Department of Energy X-ray spectroscopy facilities can probe phosphorus through higher-atomic-number elements and enable structural dynamics studies on time scales into the sub-millisecond regime.

Synchrotron-Based X-Ray Spectroscopy Techniques Enable Exploration of Metal Interactions in Biological and Biogeochemical Systems. Top and Bottom Left: Understanding the structure of the copper-dependent integral membrane metalloenzyme in methanotrophic bacteria that converts methane to methanol. Top right: Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) reveals the structure of the active site of a nitrogenase enzyme that converts dinitrogen (N2) to bioavailable ammonia (NH3), which is a fundamental step in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Bottom right: Geogenic CO2 exhalations are excellent natural laboratories for studying the behavior of copper in soil. The natural gradients found in redox conditions and in soil organic matter enable interacting processes to be disentangled. [All images copyrighted. See credit information at bottom of page.]

Key Features of X-ray Spectroscopy Techniques

  • Determination of the atomic-resolution geometric structure of metal sites in molecules (EXAFS)
  • Determination of oxidation states, metal-ligand interactions, bond strength, and structure-function correlation in molecules (XAS, XES, and RIXS)
  • Determination of metal geometry, redox, and bonding in a single X-ray spectroscopy experiment
  • X-ray energy range of 2 to 35 keV for studying phosphorus and higher-atomic-number elements
  • Capacity for diverse sample types, including ultra-dilute metalloenzyme solutions, environmental or biogeochemical solutions, crystalline and amorphous solids, metal-colloid complexes, clays and multiphase mixtures, and in situ reaction environments with time-resolved capabilities

BER Researchers Use X-ray Spectroscopy to Study:

  • Trace metal utilization in individual microbes and communities of organisms to understand their success or failure in ecosystems
  • Systems-scale consequences of metal and organic matter environments in biological, biomimetic, and bioinspired systems
  • Structure and function of metalloproteins and their intermediates in bioenergy, biogeochemical, and environmental enzymatic cycles
  • The role of metalloproteins in the global carbon cycle
  • Soil systems, both natural and environmentally compromised
  • Microbe-fungi interactions and the evolution of microbial communities
  • Biological remediation of toxic and radioactive waste

See more examples in Science Highlights

Sample Considerations

  • Versatile sample environments range from low cryogenic through room (and elevated) temperatures and are in either helium (for elements from phosphorus to scandium), anoxic nitrogen, or air.
  • Sample containment and preparation range from simple (“as-is”) to complex and are tailored to the experiment and X-ray energy range needs.
  • Liquid samples can be studied frozen, static, or flowing.
  • X-ray penetration of a sample depends on X-ray energy and sample density, thus the optimal approach to sample preparation varies between experiments.
  • X-ray spectroscopy can also be employed at less than 2 keV energies for low-atomic-number elements. These experiments require an in-vacuum environment, are surface sensitive, and are rarely used for biological/biogeochemical studies.
  • Users should discuss sample approaches with experts at the different beamline facilities.

X-ray Spectroscopy Beamlines at DOE User Facilities

Each beamline has unique characteristics. To determine the user facility and beamline best suited to your science questions, see additional information and beamline contacts at the links below.

Image Credits

Row 1, Image 1: Reprinted with permission from Elsevier from Sirajuddin, S., et al. 2014. “Effects of Zinc on Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Activity and Structure,” Journal of Biological Chemistry 289, 21782–794. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M114.581363. Copyright 2014.

Row 1, Image 2: Reprinted with permission from Elsevier from Flores, R. M. 2014. “Chapter 3 – Origin of Coal as Gas Source and Reservoir Rocks,” In Coal and Coalbed Gas, 97-165. Ed. R.M. Fores, Elsevier. ISBN: 9780123969729, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-396972-9.00003-3.

Row 1, Image 3: Reprinted with permission from Van Stappen, C., et al. 2019. “Spectroscopic Description of the E1 State of Mo Nitrogenase Based on Mo and Fe X-ray Absorption and Mössbauer Studies,” Inorganic Chemistry 58, 12365. DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b01951. Further permissions related to the material excerpted should be directed to the American Chemical Society.

Row 2, Image 1 and 2: Reprinted with permission from Elsevier from Ro, S. Y., et al. 2018. “From Micelles to Bicelles: Effect of the Membrane on Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Activity,” Journal of Biological Chemistry 293, 10457. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.003348.

Row 2, Image 3: Reprinted with permission from Mehlhorn, J., et al. 2018. “Copper Mobilization and Immobilization along an Organic Matter and Redox Gradient—Insights from a Mofette Site,” Environ. Sci. Technol52, 13698. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.8b02668. Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society.

Research Highlights

DateTitleResourceTechniqueFacilityResearch Theme
08/26/2022RuBisCO Evolution Enabled by Structural PlasticityStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
04/07/2022Soft X-ray Tomography Captures Mesoscale Organelle InteractionsNational Center for X-Ray TomographySoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
01/11/2022Biocatalyst Inspiration: Specificity and Selectivity of Rieske OxygenasesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/25/2021Understanding How Bacteria Degrade N-GlycanStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/04/2021Potentially Customizable Molecular Assembly LineStanford-SLAC Cryo-EM Center, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
04/05/2022How a Soil Microbe Could Rev Up Artificial PhotosynthesisStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
12/16/2021Aggregates Formed During Biomass Pretreatment Stem from Both Hemicellulose and LigninCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/14/2021A Tunable Plant Pseudoenzyme-Enzyme Complex Regulates B6 ProductionCryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy at EMSLCryo-Electron MicroscopyEnvironmental Molecular Sciences LaboratoryMolecular Structure
02/22/2021Repurposing Cancer and Seizure Medications to Aid Fight Against COVID-19Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/11/2020Structural Basis for Neutralization of Betacoronaviruses by Llama AntibodiesStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/19/2021Existing Drug Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 ReplicationStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/03/2021Deconstructing the Infection Machinery of SARS-CoV-2Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Structural Biology Center, Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, Solution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Spallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
05/12/2021Crystallography Confirms Drug-Protein Interaction that May Prevent Certain Breast CancersStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
04/17/2020Crystal Structures of SARS-CoV-2 Yield Understanding of Viral Replication EngineStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
05/01/2021Structural Plasticity of the Selectivity Filter in a Nonselective Ion ChannelStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/05/2021Study Sheds Light on Photosynthesis in Iron-Low LeavesCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
02/11/2021A Modular Approach to Designing Protein AssembliesStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/19/2021Fusion Enzymes Improve Yield of Functionalized TerpenesStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/06/2021Designing a Controllable Self-Assembling BiomaterialStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
02/03/2020Antibodies Elicited by Zika Vaccine CharacterizedCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
09/24/2019Revealing a MERS-CoV VulnerabilityStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/27/2020Potent Antibody Against SARS-CoV-2Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
02/02/2021SARS-CoV-2 Enzyme Structure Reveals Potential InhibitorsStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
05/21/2021Essential Enzyme in Bacterial Protein SynthesisStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/02/2021Complexation of Metals with Bacterial MethanobactinsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
03/24/2021Deciphering the Mechanism of Enzymatic Methane SynthesisStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/30/2020Molecular Crystals Hybridized with Hydrogel Polymers Achieve Unprecedented Material AttributesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/07/2020Multistep Crystallization of Microbial S-LayersStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life Sciences, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, Solution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/23/2020Antibiotics with a Built-in OFF SwitchStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray Scattering, Synchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure, Chemical and Elemental Information
11/02/2020Mechanistic Insights into Cu(I) Biogenesis of Galactose OxidaseStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
09/01/2020Tracking Foliar Zinc Absorption in Apple TreesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
01/01/2021Soil Amendments and Flooding Cycle Impact Cadmium Bioavailability in Paddy SoilStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/18/2020Visualizing Enzymes in ActionStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/22/2020Efficient and Economical Strategy for Functional Metalloprotein DesignStructural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/10/2020Introducing Positive Charges in an Artificial Enzyme Increases CO2 HydrogenationStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyEnvironmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
12/09/2019Tuning the Catalytic Bias of Hydrogenase EnzymesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular Crystallography, Synchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingEnvironmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure, Chemical and Elemental Information
03/08/2018Safety Concerns Over Tungsten Accumulation in BoneCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
07/08/2019Nanoparticle Properties Influence Nutrient Transport in PlantsCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/17/20183.7-Billion-Year-Old Rock Structures Formed by Tectonics, Not LifeCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
09/07/2018X-ray Nanofluorescence Tomography of Single Bacterial CellsCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
12/10/2018Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry Influences Journey Through Tomato PlantCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
11/07/2017Characterization of Elusive Yeast Protein Complex Involved in AutophagyCenter for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
03/24/2020Critical Structural Differences Between Seasonal and Pandemic InfluenzaCenter for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
03/24/2020Tunable Molecular Coating Stabilizes "DNA Origami" StructuresCenter for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
01/10/2018Novel Architecture of a Bacterial Plasma Membrane TransporterCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
11/16/20173D Protein Structure Aids Search for VaccineCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
08/09/2018Activation Mechanism of a Protein Kinase Reveals Role in Cancer ProliferationCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
10/08/2018Searching for New Ways to Fight Bacterial ResistanceCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
06/21/2019Light Teaches Coenzymes New TricksCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
05/21/2019Structural Basis of Bacterial Spore GerminationCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
05/07/2020Mechanism of Activation of a Plant MetacaspaseCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
04/14/2021Molecular Fragment Screening Identifies Potential SARS-CoV-2 InhibitorsCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life Sciences, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/13/2018Structure of a Nuclear Membrane GatekeeperCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
09/23/2019Mechanism of Regulatory Protein's Dual Role as Inhibitor and ActivatorCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
04/02/2013Major Scaffold Component in Nuclear Pore ComplexStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/24/2012Modulation of Plant Hormones by GH3 ProteinsStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/29/2013Common Physical Processes in Different Biomass PretreatmentsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographySpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
07/17/2013Lessening X-ray Damage Speeds Protein DiscoveryStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
02/07/2013Lipid Bilayer Composition Regulates Function of Lipid Rafts in Model Cell MembranesCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/09/2012Watching the Evolution of a Protein’s FunctionStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/15/2013Multifunctionality of an Ebola Virus ProteinStructural Biology Center, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
09/26/2014Understanding Nitrogen Fixation in BacteriaStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/10/2014Self-Assembling Porous Protein Cage Designed for Potential Biotech ApplicationsStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
08/25/2015Modular Construction on a Biomolecular ScaleStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/10/2015Archaeal Enzyme Plays Key Role in Atmospheric Carbon TurnoverStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
09/08/2015Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris DecompositionBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging Program, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging, X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
12/07/2016Using Soft X-ray Ptychography to Investigate a Bacterium’s Inner CompassX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
11/30/2016Crystal Structure of NOV1 Enzyme Reveals Mechanism of ActionStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
11/15/2016Mapping the Migration of Genetic MaterialNational Center for X-Ray TomographySoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
09/30/2020Understanding an Essential Chaperone ComplexStructural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, Solution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
07/31/2020Targeting a Critical Molecular Switch in COVID-19Center for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
11/30/2020Fine Tuning Drugs to Fight CancerCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
01/12/2016Cellulose Synthesis ComplexCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, Solution X-ray ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/14/2016Hollow Pyramid Unlocks Principles of Protein ArchitectureStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
12/20/2016Detailing the Molecular Roots of Alzheimer’s DiseaseStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/15/2016How Your Body Transports Zinc to Protect Your HealthStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
07/20/2017The CRISPR Target-Recognition MechanismStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/03/2018Dynamic Regulation of Histone Chaperone NucleoplasminStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/23/2017Revealing How Bacterial Organelles AssembleStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/26/2017Molecular Basis of Alternative Tyrosine Biosynthesis in PlantsStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
04/12/2017Green Alga Genome Provides Blueprint to Advance Clean Energy, BioproductsNational Center for X-Ray TomographySoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
10/06/2016Description of Hydration Water in Green Fluorescent Protein SolutionCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/29/2017Precise Control of Neutron Contrast in Surfactant Micelles Provides Platform for Membrane Structure StudiesCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/22/2016Neutrons Identify Oxygen Activation in LPMO enzymeCenter for Structural Molecular BiologyNeutron Macromolecular Crystallography, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Spallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
05/23/2017Using Neutrons to Resolve Plasma Membrane Organization in Live BacteriaCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
08/03/2017Chemical Strategy for Conversion of CO2 to BiomassStructural Biology Center, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/19/2020Enhancing Enzyme Catalysis Through Directed EvolutionStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
08/14/2020Phenoxy Radical-Radical Coupling in PlantsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/22/2017Archaeal Abundance on Human Skin Changes with AgeBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/11/2017Hacking the Bacterial Social NetworkStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/16/2017Engineering Better Plant Cultivars for Iron Uptake by Modifying the Iron Deficiency Response in Arabidopsis thalianaStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
05/09/2017Probing S-layer Protein Structural Dynamics with SAXSStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
09/08/2017The Origins of Photosynthesis in a Sun-Loving BacteriaStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/14/2017X-ray Footprinting Solves Mystery of Metal-Breathing ProteinCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray FootprintingAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
12/05/2016Designing Cyclic Oligomers: Greater than the Sum of Their PartsStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
09/09/2017Measuring and Modeling Poplar Root Water Extraction After Drought Using Neutron ImagingCenter for Structural Molecular BiologyNeutron ImagingSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorCell and Tissue Structure
06/30/2017Finding New Clues to a Common Respiratory VirusStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/02/2017Arsenic Accumulation in Benthic Periphytic BiofilmsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/01/2016Crystal Clear Imaging Infrared Brings to Light Nanoscale Molecular ArrangementBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
07/10/2017Novel Orange Carotenoid Proteins Shed Light on Evolution of Cyanobacteria PhotoprotectionStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/11/2017Study Pinpoints Most Reactive Areas of Nanoscale ParticlesBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
01/19/2017A Regional Model for Uranium Redox and MobilityStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
04/07/2017Direct Measurement of Protein Dynamics In VivoCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
04/18/2017Could This Enzyme Help Turn Biofuel Waste into Something Useful?Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
07/11/2017Brown Rot Fungi Reveal a New Approach for Biomass Conversion to Fuels and ChemicalsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/19/2019Dynamics on Cellulose Show Two Important Populations from Neutron Scattering and SimulationsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
11/15/2017Cyanobacterial Studies Examine Cellular Structure During Nitrogen StarvationCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/13/2017Binding of Alternative Substrates to NitrogenaseStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/17/2018"Zip Code" Mechanism for Hormone Signaling RevealedCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/18/2018Structure of a Flavoenzyme Assembly IntermediateStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
12/14/2017Using Plants to Immobilize and Stabilize Arsenic in the SoilCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/30/2018Directed Evolution Mimics Allosteric Activation of EnzymesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
08/21/2018Potent BacteriaStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/15/2018Controlled Self-Assembly of a Designed NucleoproteinStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/05/2019Peptide Induced Lateral Segregation of Lipids in a BiomembraneCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
02/25/2019Breakthrough Shines Light on Disease-Fighting ProteinStanford-SLAC Cryo-EM Center, Structural Biology CenterCryo-Electron Microscopy, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/18/2019An Efficient and Economical Strategy for the Design of Functional MetalloproteinsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/22/2019DNA Gets a Bigger AlphabetStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/05/2019Understanding Cadmium Distribution in Hyperaccumulating Plants for Efficient PhytoremediationStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
04/05/2019Influence of Chemically Disrupted Photosynthesis on Cyanobacterial Thylakoid DynamicsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
04/12/2019What Enables the Fastest Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Reductive Carboxylase?Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/03/2019New Approach for Solving Protein Structures from Tiny CrystalsCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
07/10/2019Structuring Sweetness: What Makes Stevia 200 Times Sweeter than Sugar?Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
07/10/2019Structural Characterization of Chitinases from Agave tequilanaStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/19/2019How Essential Membrane Lipids Interact to Regulate Cellular ProcessesStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/29/2019Ammonia-Salt Solvent Promotes Cellulosic Biomass Deconstruction Under Ambient Processing ConditionsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/09/2019Research at the Advanced Photon Source Leads to New Ebola DrugStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/29/2020How Proteins Remodel DNA in Bacteria Under StressNational Center for X-Ray Tomography, Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular Crystallography, Soft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure, Cell and Tissue Structure
08/13/2020Cell Membrane Proteins Imaged in 3DCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular Crystallography, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
07/21/2020Role of Solvents in Efficient Biomass DeconstructionCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
02/14/2020How Dinosaur Blood Vessels Preserve Through the AgesBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
06/23/2020Novel Cell Membrane Model Could Be Key to Uncovering New Protein PropertiesCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Center for Structural Molecular BiologyCryo-Electron Microscopy, Small-Angle Neutron Scattering, Solution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Spallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure, Cell and Tissue Structure
10/07/2020"Missing Link" in Evolutionary History of the Carbon-Fixing Protein RubiscoStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure