BER Structural Biology and Imaging Resources
Synchrotron, Neutron, and Cryo-EM
U.S. Department of Energy | Biological and Environmental Research Program

X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging

Spatially resolved images of chemical species within a sample

X-ray fluorescence imaging (XRF), or X-ray spectromicroscopy, maps the distributions of elements and chemical species of interest within biological samples. Synchrotron XRF (SXRF) can provide detailed images of element speciation to a resolution of 0.5 µm per pixel, a sensitivity beyond desktop XRF, electron microprobe, or other elemental imaging techniques. SXRF resources supported by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program can image phosphorus through most elements in the periodic table. Sample requirements and preparation are minimal, allowing the flexibility to explore diverse scientific questions and to design unique user experiments. SXRF beamlines use a combination of methods, ranging from mapping an area at a particular X-ray energy (that corresponds to the excitation of an element) to identifying the oxidation state and chemistry of a particular element using a technique called X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy.

Two-dimensional X-ray fluorescence image of total Fe (a) and As (b) in a whole mount of a Fe plaque-free rice root grown in well-weathered soil. Panels (c–h) are higher resolution images of the yellow box in panel (a) that show the Fe (c), arsenite (As(III)) (d), and arsenate (As(V)i) (e) distribution where a lateral root has formed from the main root, and panels (f–h) are tricolor plots that show the localization of As(III) in relation to As(V)i and Fe (f), K (g), and S (h). All colormap units are in pg cm−2, with a maximum of 200 for Fe and 0.75 for As, and show that lateral root junctions are hotspots of As(III)i entering the vascular tissue. [Seyfferth, A. L., et al. 2017.]

Key Features of XRF Imaging

  • Imaging resolution tailored to sample size and scientific question
  • Simultaneous collection of multiple-element data
  • Micron-scale measurements of chemical speciation to identify valence state, bond lengths, and neighboring atoms
  • Chemical speciation mapping (beyond total elemental composition)
  • Micron-scale diffraction measurements for samples with crystalline phases
  • Typical energy range of 2 to 30 keV for measuring phosphorus through cadmium K-edge, and the possibility for measuring higher-atomic-number elements (e.g. actinides) using L- or M-edges
  • Accommodation of diverse sample types, including cells, organisms, soil, and rock
  • Diverse sample mounting forms

BER Researchers Use XRF to Study:

See more examples in Science Highlights

Sample Considerations

  • Sample imaging environments are either a helium-purged atmosphere (for elements from phosphorous to scandium) or ambient air.
  • Sample topography should be no greater than the width of the desired spot size (beam diameter), especially when investigating low-Z (low atomic number) elements.
  • Samples may be any thickness, but X-ray penetration of the sample depends on the X-ray energy and sample density.
  • Samples must stay upright when mounted in the beam. During analysis, the sample will move, not the beam.
  • Samples that can be mounted on a standard microscope slide are generally applicable to most beamlines. Users should discuss unique sample dimensions with the beamline experts.

SXRF Beamlines at DOE User Facilities

Each beamline has unique characteristics. To determine the user facility and beamline best suited to your science questions, see additional information and beamline contacts at the links below.

Citations

Seyfferth, A. L., et al. 2017. “Evidence for the Root-Uptake of Arsenite at Lateral Root Junctions and Root Apices in Rice (Oryza sativa L.),” Soils 1(1), 3. DOI: 10.3390/soils1010003.

Research Highlights

DateTitleResourceTechniqueFacilityResearch Theme
08/26/2022RuBisCO Evolution Enabled by Structural PlasticityStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
04/07/2022Soft X-ray Tomography Captures Mesoscale Organelle InteractionsNational Center for X-Ray TomographySoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
01/11/2022Biocatalyst Inspiration: Specificity and Selectivity of Rieske OxygenasesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/25/2021Understanding How Bacteria Degrade N-GlycanStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/04/2021Potentially Customizable Molecular Assembly LineStanford-SLAC Cryo-EM Center, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
04/05/2022How a Soil Microbe Could Rev Up Artificial PhotosynthesisStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
12/16/2021Aggregates Formed During Biomass Pretreatment Stem from Both Hemicellulose and LigninCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/14/2021A Tunable Plant Pseudoenzyme-Enzyme Complex Regulates B6 ProductionCryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy at EMSLCryo-Electron MicroscopyEnvironmental Molecular Sciences LaboratoryMolecular Structure
02/22/2021Repurposing Cancer and Seizure Medications to Aid Fight Against COVID-19Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/11/2020Structural Basis for Neutralization of Betacoronaviruses by Llama AntibodiesStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/19/2021Existing Drug Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 ReplicationStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/03/2021Deconstructing the Infection Machinery of SARS-CoV-2Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Structural Biology Center, Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, Solution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Spallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
05/12/2021Crystallography Confirms Drug-Protein Interaction that May Prevent Certain Breast CancersStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
04/17/2020Crystal Structures of SARS-CoV-2 Yield Understanding of Viral Replication EngineStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
05/01/2021Structural Plasticity of the Selectivity Filter in a Nonselective Ion ChannelStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/05/2021Study Sheds Light on Photosynthesis in Iron-Low LeavesCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
02/11/2021A Modular Approach to Designing Protein AssembliesStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/19/2021Fusion Enzymes Improve Yield of Functionalized TerpenesStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/06/2021Designing a Controllable Self-Assembling BiomaterialStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
02/03/2020Antibodies Elicited by Zika Vaccine CharacterizedCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
09/24/2019Revealing a MERS-CoV VulnerabilityStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/27/2020Potent Antibody Against SARS-CoV-2Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
02/02/2021SARS-CoV-2 Enzyme Structure Reveals Potential InhibitorsStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
05/21/2021Essential Enzyme in Bacterial Protein SynthesisStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/02/2021Complexation of Metals with Bacterial MethanobactinsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
03/24/2021Deciphering the Mechanism of Enzymatic Methane SynthesisStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/30/2020Molecular Crystals Hybridized with Hydrogel Polymers Achieve Unprecedented Material AttributesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
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12/09/2019Tuning the Catalytic Bias of Hydrogenase EnzymesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular Crystallography, Synchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingEnvironmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure, Chemical and Elemental Information
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09/07/2018X-ray Nanofluorescence Tomography of Single Bacterial CellsCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
12/10/2018Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry Influences Journey Through Tomato PlantCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
11/07/2017Characterization of Elusive Yeast Protein Complex Involved in AutophagyCenter for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
03/24/2020Critical Structural Differences Between Seasonal and Pandemic InfluenzaCenter for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
03/24/2020Tunable Molecular Coating Stabilizes "DNA Origami" StructuresCenter for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
01/10/2018Novel Architecture of a Bacterial Plasma Membrane TransporterCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
11/16/20173D Protein Structure Aids Search for VaccineCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
08/09/2018Activation Mechanism of a Protein Kinase Reveals Role in Cancer ProliferationCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
10/08/2018Searching for New Ways to Fight Bacterial ResistanceCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
06/21/2019Light Teaches Coenzymes New TricksCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
05/21/2019Structural Basis of Bacterial Spore GerminationCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
05/07/2020Mechanism of Activation of a Plant MetacaspaseCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
04/14/2021Molecular Fragment Screening Identifies Potential SARS-CoV-2 InhibitorsCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life Sciences, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/13/2018Structure of a Nuclear Membrane GatekeeperCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
09/23/2019Mechanism of Regulatory Protein's Dual Role as Inhibitor and ActivatorCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
04/02/2013Major Scaffold Component in Nuclear Pore ComplexStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/24/2012Modulation of Plant Hormones by GH3 ProteinsStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/29/2013Common Physical Processes in Different Biomass PretreatmentsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographySpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
07/17/2013Lessening X-ray Damage Speeds Protein DiscoveryStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
02/07/2013Lipid Bilayer Composition Regulates Function of Lipid Rafts in Model Cell MembranesCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/09/2012Watching the Evolution of a Protein’s FunctionStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/15/2013Multifunctionality of an Ebola Virus ProteinStructural Biology Center, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
09/26/2014Understanding Nitrogen Fixation in BacteriaStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/10/2014Self-Assembling Porous Protein Cage Designed for Potential Biotech ApplicationsStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
08/25/2015Modular Construction on a Biomolecular ScaleStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/10/2015Archaeal Enzyme Plays Key Role in Atmospheric Carbon TurnoverStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
09/08/2015Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris DecompositionBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging Program, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging, X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
12/07/2016Using Soft X-ray Ptychography to Investigate a Bacterium’s Inner CompassX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
11/30/2016Crystal Structure of NOV1 Enzyme Reveals Mechanism of ActionStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
11/15/2016Mapping the Migration of Genetic MaterialNational Center for X-Ray TomographySoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
09/30/2020Understanding an Essential Chaperone ComplexStructural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, Solution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
07/31/2020Targeting a Critical Molecular Switch in COVID-19Center for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
11/30/2020Fine Tuning Drugs to Fight CancerCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
01/12/2016Cellulose Synthesis ComplexCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, Solution X-ray ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/14/2016Hollow Pyramid Unlocks Principles of Protein ArchitectureStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
12/20/2016Detailing the Molecular Roots of Alzheimer’s DiseaseStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/15/2016How Your Body Transports Zinc to Protect Your HealthStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
07/20/2017The CRISPR Target-Recognition MechanismStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/03/2018Dynamic Regulation of Histone Chaperone NucleoplasminStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/23/2017Revealing How Bacterial Organelles AssembleStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/26/2017Molecular Basis of Alternative Tyrosine Biosynthesis in PlantsStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
04/12/2017Green Alga Genome Provides Blueprint to Advance Clean Energy, BioproductsNational Center for X-Ray TomographySoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
10/06/2016Description of Hydration Water in Green Fluorescent Protein SolutionCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/29/2017Precise Control of Neutron Contrast in Surfactant Micelles Provides Platform for Membrane Structure StudiesCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/22/2016Neutrons Identify Oxygen Activation in LPMO enzymeCenter for Structural Molecular BiologyNeutron Macromolecular Crystallography, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Spallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
05/23/2017Using Neutrons to Resolve Plasma Membrane Organization in Live BacteriaCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
08/03/2017Chemical Strategy for Conversion of CO2 to BiomassStructural Biology Center, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/19/2020Enhancing Enzyme Catalysis Through Directed EvolutionStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
08/14/2020Phenoxy Radical-Radical Coupling in PlantsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/22/2017Archaeal Abundance on Human Skin Changes with AgeBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/11/2017Hacking the Bacterial Social NetworkStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/16/2017Engineering Better Plant Cultivars for Iron Uptake by Modifying the Iron Deficiency Response in Arabidopsis thalianaStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
05/09/2017Probing S-layer Protein Structural Dynamics with SAXSStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
09/08/2017The Origins of Photosynthesis in a Sun-Loving BacteriaStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/14/2017X-ray Footprinting Solves Mystery of Metal-Breathing ProteinCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray FootprintingAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
12/05/2016Designing Cyclic Oligomers: Greater than the Sum of Their PartsStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
09/09/2017Measuring and Modeling Poplar Root Water Extraction After Drought Using Neutron ImagingCenter for Structural Molecular BiologyNeutron ImagingSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorCell and Tissue Structure
06/30/2017Finding New Clues to a Common Respiratory VirusStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/02/2017Arsenic Accumulation in Benthic Periphytic BiofilmsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/01/2016Crystal Clear Imaging Infrared Brings to Light Nanoscale Molecular ArrangementBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
07/10/2017Novel Orange Carotenoid Proteins Shed Light on Evolution of Cyanobacteria PhotoprotectionStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/11/2017Study Pinpoints Most Reactive Areas of Nanoscale ParticlesBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
01/19/2017A Regional Model for Uranium Redox and MobilityStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
04/07/2017Direct Measurement of Protein Dynamics In VivoCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
04/18/2017Could This Enzyme Help Turn Biofuel Waste into Something Useful?Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
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09/19/2019Dynamics on Cellulose Show Two Important Populations from Neutron Scattering and SimulationsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
11/15/2017Cyanobacterial Studies Examine Cellular Structure During Nitrogen StarvationCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/13/2017Binding of Alternative Substrates to NitrogenaseStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/17/2018"Zip Code" Mechanism for Hormone Signaling RevealedCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
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11/15/2018Controlled Self-Assembly of a Designed NucleoproteinStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/05/2019Peptide Induced Lateral Segregation of Lipids in a BiomembraneCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
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