BER Structural Biology and Imaging Resources
Synchrotron, Neutron, and Cryo-EM
U.S. Department of Energy | Biological and Environmental Research Program

X-Ray Macromolecular Crystallography

Atomic-resolution images of proteins, RNA, DNA, complexes, and macromolecular machines

Carboxylases are key enzymes in photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle. The structure of enoyl-CoA carboxylase/reductase from a soil bacterium sheds light on the molecular basis of one of nature’s fastest CO2-fixing enzymes. X-ray crystallography of the tetramer structure (four colored protein subunits), combined with molecular dynamics calculations, revealed the CO2-fixing mechanism and interdomain interactions that enable remarkably fast turnover of the CO2-fixing reaction. This paves the way for designing efficient and selective CO2-fixing enzymes for biofuel and biomolecule production. [From Stoffel, G. M. M., et al. 2019.]

X-ray macromolecular crystallography (MX) uses X-rays to determine the three-dimensional structures of biological molecules, ranging broadly in size and complexity, at the atomic level. In this widely used technique, high-intensity X-rays are directed onto crystals containing biological molecules to obtain a series of diffraction images that are then assembled into a dataset. The dataset is analyzed to yield high-resolution structural information (often in the ~1–3 ångström resolution range). This provides the precise location of the often thousands of atoms in the structure.

Such information can be obtained for a wide range of biological systems, including soluble and membrane-bound proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), glycans, other post-translational protein modifications, and complexes of these molecules. MX can determine the structures of complex macromolecular systems and even whole viruses and can investigate bound metabolites or potential drugs, metal ions, and other cofactors.

Such knowledge provides detailed insight into how these biological systems function in living cells, tissues, and organisms. Detailed structural information is crucial for identifying the active and regulatory sites of enzymes participating in key metabolic or signaling pathways in soil microorganisms and plants, and is essential to structure-based drug discovery. MX structural information about engineered and de novo designed enzymes can also provide crucial information for synthetic biology research.

Most MX studies today are conducted using synchrotron or free-electron laser X-ray sources. These sources generate extremely bright X-ray beams producing the highest quality structural information, provide automation for very high throughput sample analysis, and offer remote access and expert support. Increasingly, MX studies use micron-sized crystals and employ time resolution to more accurately determine crystal structures. MX-acquired information is highly complementary to neutron diffraction, cryo-EM imaging, solution X-ray scattering, neutron scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and functional studies.

Key Features of X-ray Macromolecular Crystallography

  • X-ray crystallography provides structural insight into how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with human cells. Here, the virus’ receptor-binding domain (RBD, gray), located on the spike protein, binds to ACE2 (green), the receptor on human cells which enables entry of the virus into a cell. Such structural details inform strategies to engineer antibodies that prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. [Reprinted under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license from Kyere, J., et. al. 2020. “A Therapeutic Non-self-reactive SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Protects from Lung Pathology in a COVID-19 Hamster Model,” Cell 183(4), 1058-1069, e19. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.049.]

    Accommodates biological molecules ranging in size from tens of daltons to hundreds of kilodaltons, including large macromolecular complexes and whole viruses.
  • New MX technologies enable sample measurements at physiological temperatures to monitor progress of chemical and structural transformations, such as during enzymatic catalysis.
  • Suites of data analysis software enable structure determination during and after data acquisition.
  • High-resolution crystal structures provide a strong basis for computational work on enzyme inhibitor/activator design and modeling of extremely large complexes such as fatty acid synthases, photosynthetic complexes, and cellulose synthase.

BER Researchers Use X-ray Macromolecular Crystallography to Study:

  • Molecules involved in biologically important processes such as biopolymer synthesis and degradation (e.g., glycosyl transferases, cellulases, and cellulosomes), energy conversion, and carbon cycling
  • Glycosidases in newly discovered microorganisms from the rhizosphere, hot springs (i.e., extremophiles), and animal rumens
  • Enzymes involved in carbon dioxide or nitrogen fixation and novel, engineered carbon and nitrogen cycling systems
  • Key enzymes in synthetic biology (e.g., CRISPR and engineered proteins)
  • Natural and engineered enzymes involved in biofuel production, such as polyketide synthases, terpene synthases, and P450s
  • Bacterial microcompartments that can sequester chemical reactions in a cell

See more examples in Science Highlights

Sample Considerations

  • Biomolecules must be purified in milligram quantities.
  • Samples must be crystallized in a form suitable for high-resolution data collection.
  • Typical high-resolution data collection requires cryogenic cooling of the crystals.
  • Low radiation dose data can be measured from crystals at room temperature when using serial crystallography at synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs).
  • XFELs enable structure determination of sensitive systems without radiation damage.
  • Data collection at ambient temperatures (2–25 oC) is possible.
  • Synchrotrons offer time-resolved crystallography data collection on millisecond to second timescales.
  • XFELs deliver femtosecond X-ray pulses that enable time-resolved measurements to image photochemistry and very fast reactions.

X-ray Macromolecular Crystallography Instruments at DOE User Facilities

Each beamline has unique characteristics. To determine the user facility and beamline best suited to your science questions, see additional information and beamline contacts at the links below.

  • 7 beamlines available for crystallographic studies of macromolecules — Advanced Light Source
    Five beamlines are wavelength-tunable and optimized for multi-wavelength anomalous experiments. Several beamlines are equipped with high-speed, Pilatus pixel array X-ray detectors. All beamlines have automated sample-changing robots to facilitate rapid screening of crystals. Sample screening automation is combined with data collection software to enable remote, automated, unattended data collection. A new microfocus beamline, GEMINI, will begin operation in late 2021.
  • Structural Biology Center — Advanced Photon Source
    Provides access to two MX beamlines covering a wide energy range (6 to 20 keV). One beamline offers a microbeam for micrometer-size single crystals. Room temperature serial crystallography is available. Both beamlines are fully automated with remote access and robotic sample handling, and the center offers full user experiment control and access to its computing and software resources.
  • Structural Molecular Biology ResourceStanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) at SLAC
    2 beamlines — Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC
    SSRL beamlines are equipped for MX studies, including two high-brightness microbeam undulator sources. All are fully automated and remotely accessible and controllable. Single-crystal ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) microspectrometry is available to monitor the electronic state of metalloenzyme crystals. Remote-accessible LCLS beamlines are equipped for MX studies as well. At both SSRL and LCLS, experimental capabilities for serial MX include fixed-target approaches (at cryogenic and elevated temperatures) and liquid/crystal injection-based approaches. SLAC also offers both complementary X-ray techniques (biological small-angle X-ray scattering and biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy imaging) and electron microscopy techniques (cryo-EM, cryo-ET, and cryo-focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy), with the opportunity for coordinated access to multiple instruments.

Citations

Stoffel, G. M. M., et al. 2019. “Four Amino Acids Define the CO2 Binding Pocket of Enoyl-CoA Carboxylases/Reductases,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 16(28), 13964–969. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1901471116.

Research Highlights

DateTitleResourceTechniqueFacilityResearch Theme
04/07/2022Soft X-ray Tomography Captures Mesoscale Organelle InteractionsNational Center for X-Ray TomographySoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
01/11/2022Biocatalyst Inspiration: Specificity and Selectivity of Rieske OxygenasesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/25/2021Understanding How Bacteria Degrade N-GlycanStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/04/2021Potentially Customizable Molecular Assembly LineStanford-SLAC Cryo-EM Center, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
04/05/2022How a Soil Microbe Could Rev Up Artificial PhotosynthesisStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
12/16/2021Aggregates Formed During Biomass Pretreatment Stem from Both Hemicellulose and LigninCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/14/2021A Tunable Plant Pseudoenzyme-Enzyme Complex Regulates B6 ProductionCryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy at EMSLCryo-Electron MicroscopyEnvironmental Molecular Sciences LaboratoryMolecular Structure
02/22/2021Repurposing Cancer and Seizure Medications to Aid Fight Against COVID-19Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/11/2020Structural Basis for Neutralization of Betacoronaviruses by Llama AntibodiesStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/19/2021Existing Drug Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 ReplicationStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/03/2021Deconstructing the Infection Machinery of SARS-CoV-2Center for Structural Molecular Biology, Structural Biology Center, Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, Solution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Spallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
05/12/2021Crystallography Confirms Drug-Protein Interaction that May Prevent Certain Breast CancersStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
04/17/2020Crystal Structures of SARS-CoV-2 Yield Understanding of Viral Replication EngineStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
05/01/2021Structural Plasticity of the Selectivity Filter in a Nonselective Ion ChannelStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/05/2021Study Sheds Light on Photosynthesis in Iron-Low LeavesCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
02/11/2021A Modular Approach to Designing Protein AssembliesStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/19/2021Fusion Enzymes Improve Yield of Functionalized TerpenesStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/06/2021Designing a Controllable Self-Assembling BiomaterialStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
02/03/2020Antibodies Elicited by Zika Vaccine CharacterizedCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
09/24/2019Revealing a MERS-CoV VulnerabilityStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/27/2020Potent Antibody Against SARS-CoV-2Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
02/02/2021SARS-CoV-2 Enzyme Structure Reveals Potential InhibitorsStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
05/21/2021Essential Enzyme in Bacterial Protein SynthesisStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/02/2021Complexation of Metals with Bacterial MethanobactinsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
03/24/2021Deciphering the Mechanism of Enzymatic Methane SynthesisStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/30/2020Molecular Crystals Hybridized with Hydrogel Polymers Achieve Unprecedented Material AttributesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/07/2020Multistep Crystallization of Microbial S-LayersStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life Sciences, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, Solution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/23/2020Antibiotics with a Built-in OFF SwitchStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray Scattering, Synchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure, Chemical and Elemental Information
11/02/2020Mechanistic Insights into Cu(I) Biogenesis of Galactose OxidaseStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
09/01/2020Tracking Foliar Zinc Absorption in Apple TreesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
01/01/2021Soil Amendments and Flooding Cycle Impact Cadmium Bioavailability in Paddy SoilStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/18/2020Visualizing Enzymes in ActionStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/22/2020Efficient and Economical Strategy for Functional Metalloprotein DesignStructural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/10/2020Introducing Positive Charges in an Artificial Enzyme Increases CO2 HydrogenationStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyEnvironmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
12/09/2019Tuning the Catalytic Bias of Hydrogenase EnzymesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular Crystallography, Synchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingEnvironmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure, Chemical and Elemental Information
03/08/2018Safety Concerns Over Tungsten Accumulation in BoneCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
07/08/2019Nanoparticle Properties Influence Nutrient Transport in PlantsCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/17/20183.7-Billion-Year-Old Rock Structures Formed by Tectonics, Not LifeCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
09/07/2018X-ray Nanofluorescence Tomography of Single Bacterial CellsCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
12/10/2018Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry Influences Journey Through Tomato PlantCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
11/07/2017Characterization of Elusive Yeast Protein Complex Involved in AutophagyCenter for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
03/24/2020Critical Structural Differences Between Seasonal and Pandemic InfluenzaCenter for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
03/24/2020Tunable Molecular Coating Stabilizes "DNA Origami" StructuresCenter for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
01/10/2018Novel Architecture of a Bacterial Plasma Membrane TransporterCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
11/16/20173D Protein Structure Aids Search for VaccineCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
08/09/2018Activation Mechanism of a Protein Kinase Reveals Role in Cancer ProliferationCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
10/08/2018Searching for New Ways to Fight Bacterial ResistanceCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
06/21/2019Light Teaches Coenzymes New TricksCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
05/21/2019Structural Basis of Bacterial Spore GerminationCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
05/07/2020Mechanism of Activation of a Plant MetacaspaseCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
04/14/2021Molecular Fragment Screening Identifies Potential SARS-CoV-2 InhibitorsCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life Sciences, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/13/2018Structure of a Nuclear Membrane GatekeeperCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
09/23/2019Mechanism of Regulatory Protein's Dual Role as Inhibitor and ActivatorCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
04/02/2013Major Scaffold Component in Nuclear Pore ComplexStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/24/2012Modulation of Plant Hormones by GH3 ProteinsStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
10/29/2013Common Physical Processes in Different Biomass PretreatmentsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographySpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
07/17/2013Lessening X-ray Damage Speeds Protein DiscoveryStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
02/07/2013Lipid Bilayer Composition Regulates Function of Lipid Rafts in Model Cell MembranesCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/09/2012Watching the Evolution of a Protein’s FunctionStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/15/2013Multifunctionality of an Ebola Virus ProteinStructural Biology Center, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
09/26/2014Understanding Nitrogen Fixation in BacteriaStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/10/2014Self-Assembling Porous Protein Cage Designed for Potential Biotech ApplicationsStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
08/25/2015Modular Construction on a Biomolecular ScaleStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/10/2015Archaeal Enzyme Plays Key Role in Atmospheric Carbon TurnoverStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
09/08/2015Manganese Reduction-Oxidation Drives Plant Debris DecompositionBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging Program, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging, X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
12/07/2016Using Soft X-ray Ptychography to Investigate a Bacterium’s Inner CompassX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
11/30/2016Crystal Structure of NOV1 Enzyme Reveals Mechanism of ActionStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
11/15/2016Mapping the Migration of Genetic MaterialNational Center for X-Ray TomographySoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
09/30/2020Understanding an Essential Chaperone ComplexStructural Molecular Biology ResourceCryo-Electron Microscopy, Solution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
07/31/2020Targeting a Critical Molecular Switch in COVID-19Center for BioMolecular StructureSolution X-ray ScatteringNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
11/30/2020Fine Tuning Drugs to Fight CancerCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
01/12/2016Cellulose Synthesis ComplexCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron Scattering, Solution X-ray ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/14/2016Hollow Pyramid Unlocks Principles of Protein ArchitectureStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray ScatteringAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
12/20/2016Detailing the Molecular Roots of Alzheimer’s DiseaseStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/15/2016How Your Body Transports Zinc to Protect Your HealthStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
07/20/2017The CRISPR Target-Recognition MechanismStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/03/2018Dynamic Regulation of Histone Chaperone NucleoplasminStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/23/2017Revealing How Bacterial Organelles AssembleStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/26/2017Molecular Basis of Alternative Tyrosine Biosynthesis in PlantsStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
04/12/2017Green Alga Genome Provides Blueprint to Advance Clean Energy, BioproductsNational Center for X-Ray TomographySoft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceCell and Tissue Structure
10/06/2016Description of Hydration Water in Green Fluorescent Protein SolutionCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/29/2017Precise Control of Neutron Contrast in Surfactant Micelles Provides Platform for Membrane Structure StudiesCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/22/2016Neutrons Identify Oxygen Activation in LPMO enzymeCenter for Structural Molecular BiologyNeutron Macromolecular Crystallography, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Spallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
05/23/2017Using Neutrons to Resolve Plasma Membrane Organization in Live BacteriaCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
08/03/2017Chemical Strategy for Conversion of CO2 to BiomassStructural Biology Center, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/19/2020Enhancing Enzyme Catalysis Through Directed EvolutionStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
08/14/2020Phenoxy Radical-Radical Coupling in PlantsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
06/22/2017Archaeal Abundance on Human Skin Changes with AgeBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/11/2017Hacking the Bacterial Social NetworkStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
06/16/2017Engineering Better Plant Cultivars for Iron Uptake by Modifying the Iron Deficiency Response in Arabidopsis thalianaStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
05/09/2017Probing S-layer Protein Structural Dynamics with SAXSStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
09/08/2017The Origins of Photosynthesis in a Sun-Loving BacteriaStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/14/2017X-ray Footprinting Solves Mystery of Metal-Breathing ProteinCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray FootprintingAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
12/05/2016Designing Cyclic Oligomers: Greater than the Sum of Their PartsStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light Source, Advanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
09/09/2017Measuring and Modeling Poplar Root Water Extraction After Drought Using Neutron ImagingCenter for Structural Molecular BiologyNeutron ImagingSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorCell and Tissue Structure
06/30/2017Finding New Clues to a Common Respiratory VirusStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/02/2017Arsenic Accumulation in Benthic Periphytic BiofilmsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
10/01/2016Crystal Clear Imaging Infrared Brings to Light Nanoscale Molecular ArrangementBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
07/10/2017Novel Orange Carotenoid Proteins Shed Light on Evolution of Cyanobacteria PhotoprotectionStructurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
01/11/2017Study Pinpoints Most Reactive Areas of Nanoscale ParticlesBerkeley Synchrotron Infrared Structural Biology Imaging ProgramSynchrotron Infrared Hyperspectral ImagingAdvanced Light SourceChemical and Elemental Information
01/19/2017A Regional Model for Uranium Redox and MobilityStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission SpectroscopyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
04/07/2017Direct Measurement of Protein Dynamics In VivoCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
04/18/2017Could This Enzyme Help Turn Biofuel Waste into Something Useful?Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure
07/11/2017Brown Rot Fungi Reveal a New Approach for Biomass Conversion to Fuels and ChemicalsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
09/19/2019Dynamics on Cellulose Show Two Important Populations from Neutron Scattering and SimulationsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
11/15/2017Cyanobacterial Studies Examine Cellular Structure During Nitrogen StarvationCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/13/2017Binding of Alternative Substrates to NitrogenaseStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/17/2018"Zip Code" Mechanism for Hormone Signaling RevealedCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
01/18/2018Structure of a Flavoenzyme Assembly IntermediateStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
12/14/2017Using Plants to Immobilize and Stabilize Arsenic in the SoilCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingNational Synchrotron Light Source II, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
08/30/2018Directed Evolution Mimics Allosteric Activation of EnzymesStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
08/21/2018Potent BacteriaStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/15/2018Controlled Self-Assembly of a Designed NucleoproteinStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/05/2019Peptide Induced Lateral Segregation of Lipids in a BiomembraneCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
02/25/2019Breakthrough Shines Light on Disease-Fighting ProteinStanford-SLAC Cryo-EM Center, Structural Biology CenterCryo-Electron Microscopy, X-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon Source, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/18/2019An Efficient and Economical Strategy for the Design of Functional MetalloproteinsStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
02/22/2019DNA Gets a Bigger AlphabetStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
03/05/2019Understanding Cadmium Distribution in Hyperaccumulating Plants for Efficient PhytoremediationStructural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Fluorescence ImagingStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceChemical and Elemental Information
04/05/2019Influence of Chemically Disrupted Photosynthesis on Cyanobacterial Thylakoid DynamicsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
04/12/2019What Enables the Fastest Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Reductive Carboxylase?Structural Molecular Biology ResourceX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
05/03/2019New Approach for Solving Protein Structures from Tiny CrystalsCenter for BioMolecular StructureX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyNational Synchrotron Light Source IIMolecular Structure
07/10/2019Structuring Sweetness: What Makes Stevia 200 Times Sweeter than Sugar?Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
07/10/2019Structural Characterization of Chitinases from Agave tequilanaStructural Molecular Biology ResourceSolution X-ray ScatteringStanford Synchrotron Radiation LightsourceMolecular Structure
11/19/2019How Essential Membrane Lipids Interact to Regulate Cellular ProcessesStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
11/29/2019Ammonia-Salt Solvent Promotes Cellulosic Biomass Deconstruction Under Ambient Processing ConditionsCenter for Structural Molecular BiologySmall-Angle Neutron ScatteringSpallation Neutron Source/High Flux Isotope ReactorMolecular Structure
12/09/2019Research at the Advanced Photon Source Leads to New Ebola DrugStructural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular CrystallographyAdvanced Photon SourceMolecular Structure
08/29/2020How Proteins Remodel DNA in Bacteria Under StressNational Center for X-Ray Tomography, Structurally Integrated Biology for the Life SciencesSolution X-ray Scattering, X-ray Macromolecular Crystallography, Soft X-ray TomographyAdvanced Light SourceMolecular Structure, Cell and Tissue Structure
08/13/2020Cell Membrane Proteins Imaged in 3DCenter for BioMolecular Structure, Structural Biology CenterX-ray Macromolecular Crystallography, X-ray Fluorescence ImagingAdvanced Photon Source, National Synchrotron Light Source IIChemical and Elemental Information
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